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Cholesterol / CVD

Nutritional effect of including egg yolk in the weaning diet of breast-fed and formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial

Background
Egg yolks can be a source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and iron but are often associated with adverse consequences on plasma cholesterol.

Objective
Our goal was to investigate the effect of consumption of 4 egg yolks/wk on infant DHA status and hemoglobin, ferritin, and plasma cholesterol concentrations. Secondary outcomes included plasma iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation.

Dietary cholesterol, eggs and coronary heart disease risk in perspective

The idea that dietary cholesterol increases risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by turning into blood cholesterol is compelling in much the same way that fish oil improves arthritis by lubricating our joints! Dietary cholesterol, chiefly in the form of eggs, has long been outlawed as a causative agent in CHD through its association with serum cholesterol.

Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations

Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the macular pigment of the retina, and are associated with a reduced incidence of macular degeneration.

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of consuming 1 egg/d for 5-wk on the serum concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in individuals greater than 60 y of age.

C - reactive protein (CRP) levels are not affected in participants consuming the equivalent of 2 and 4 egg yolks/day while on cholesterol-lowering medication

Increased risk of cardiovascular disease events with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) has been reported. While there are reports that increased serum levels of cholesterol and CRP are associated, it is not known if the actual intake of dietary cholesterol affects CRP levels.

Older adults > 60 years of age and taking cholesterol lowering medications for at least 3 months are being recruited into the study.

Eggs enhance the anti-inflammatory component of carbohydrate restricted diets

Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) have been shown to significantly decrease body fat and trunk fat and to decrease inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of eggs in a CRD on plasma anthropometrics, blood pressure, body composition and selected inflammatory markers in overweight/obese men (BMI = 25-37 kg/m2) aged 40-70 y undergoing a weight loss intervention.

Balancing and communicating risks and benefits associated with egg consumption – a relative risk study

The American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommend restricting egg consumption based on the hypothesis that egg intake will result in an increase in blood cholesterol levels, which, in turn, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks.

However, several studies have shown that dietary cholesterol from eggs has little, if any, effect on plasma cholesterol or the risk for heart diseases after adjustment for other potential risk factors.

Consumption of menus containing the equivalent of two and four egg yolks in older adults on cholesterol lowering medication is associated with significant changes in serum lutein

Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids which are deposited in the macula and protect against Age Related Macular Degeneration.

Increased dietary cholesterol does not increase plasma low density lipoprotein when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet and weight loss

Background 
Diets enriched with dietary cholesterol, frequently from eggs, have been shown to produce a small but variable increase in plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. There is evidence to suggest that energy-restricted diets, that may contain a relatively high proportion of fat and cholesterol, can attenuate the cholesterol-raising effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma LDL.

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