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Cholesterol / CVD

Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations

Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the macular pigment of the retina, and are associated with a reduced incidence of macular degeneration.

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of consuming 1 egg/d for 5-wk on the serum concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in individuals greater than 60 y of age.

Eggs enhance the anti-inflammatory component of carbohydrate restricted diets

Carbohydrate restricted diets (CRD) have been shown to significantly decrease body fat and trunk fat and to decrease inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of eggs in a CRD on plasma anthropometrics, blood pressure, body composition and selected inflammatory markers in overweight/obese men (BMI = 25-37 kg/m2) aged 40-70 y undergoing a weight loss intervention.

Balancing and communicating risks and benefits associated with egg consumption – a relative risk study

The American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommend restricting egg consumption based on the hypothesis that egg intake will result in an increase in blood cholesterol levels, which, in turn, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks.

However, several studies have shown that dietary cholesterol from eggs has little, if any, effect on plasma cholesterol or the risk for heart diseases after adjustment for other potential risk factors.

Increased dietary cholesterol does not increase plasma low density lipoprotein when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet and weight loss

Diets enriched with dietary cholesterol, frequently from eggs, have been shown to produce a small but variable increase in plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. There is evidence to suggest that energy-restricted diets, that may contain a relatively high proportion of fat and cholesterol, can attenuate the cholesterol-raising effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma LDL.

Lack of effect of cold water prawns on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins in normo-lipidaemic men

Dietary guidelines for the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) have restricted the intake of foods rich in dietary cholesterol, on the grounds that the dietary cholesterol will increase blood cholesterol. In the case of shellfish, this recommendation may limit the intake of a valuable dietary source of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA). The objective of this study was to undertake a dietary intervention to determine the effects of cold water prawns on plasma lipids and lipoproteins.

Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults - effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk

Limiting consumption of eggs, which are high in cholesterol, is generally recommended to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. However, recent evidence suggests that dietary cholesterol has limited influence on serum cholesterol or cardiac risk.

To assess the effects of egg consumption on endothelial function and serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults.

Egg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality: a prospective study of US adults

To evaluate the relationship between egg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (NHANES III) and follow-up survey.

A cross-sectional survey using a stratified, multi-stage probability sample was analysed, adjusting for survey design. Egg consumption was obtained from the FFQ and separated into categories of egg intake. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for CHD and stroke mortality using multivariate Cox regression models.

Dietary cholesterol: from physiology to cardiovascular risk

Dietary cholesterol comes exclusively from animal sources, thus it is naturally present in our diet and tissues. It is an important component of cell membranes and a precursor of bile acids, steroid hormones and vitamin D. Contrary to phytosterols (originated from plants), cholesterol is synthesised in the human body in order to maintain a stable pool when dietary intake is low.