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Cholesterol / CVD

Increased dietary cholesterol does not increase plasma low density lipoprotein when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet and weight loss

Background 
Diets enriched with dietary cholesterol, frequently from eggs, have been shown to produce a small but variable increase in plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. There is evidence to suggest that energy-restricted diets, that may contain a relatively high proportion of fat and cholesterol, can attenuate the cholesterol-raising effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma LDL.

Lack of effect of cold water prawns on plasma cholesterol and lipoproteins in normo-lipidaemic men

Objective
Dietary guidelines for the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) have restricted the intake of foods rich in dietary cholesterol, on the grounds that the dietary cholesterol will increase blood cholesterol. In the case of shellfish, this recommendation may limit the intake of a valuable dietary source of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA). The objective of this study was to undertake a dietary intervention to determine the effects of cold water prawns on plasma lipids and lipoproteins.

Daily egg consumption in hyperlipidemic adults - effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk

Background
Limiting consumption of eggs, which are high in cholesterol, is generally recommended to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. However, recent evidence suggests that dietary cholesterol has limited influence on serum cholesterol or cardiac risk.

Objective
To assess the effects of egg consumption on endothelial function and serum lipids in hyperlipidemic adults.

Egg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality: a prospective study of US adults

Objective 
To evaluate the relationship between egg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (NHANES III) and follow-up survey.

Design
A cross-sectional survey using a stratified, multi-stage probability sample was analysed, adjusting for survey design. Egg consumption was obtained from the FFQ and separated into categories of egg intake. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for CHD and stroke mortality using multivariate Cox regression models.

Dietary cholesterol: from physiology to cardiovascular risk

Dietary cholesterol comes exclusively from animal sources, thus it is naturally present in our diet and tissues. It is an important component of cell membranes and a precursor of bile acids, steroid hormones and vitamin D. Contrary to phytosterols (originated from plants), cholesterol is synthesised in the human body in order to maintain a stable pool when dietary intake is low.

Protein supplementation lowers blood pressure in overweight adults: effect of dietary proteins on blood pressure (PROPRES), a randomized trial

Background:
Dietary protein intake may help to manage blood pressure (BP) and prevent complications associated with elevated BP.

Objective:
The objective of this study was to determine whether 4 wk of increased protein intake (∼25% compared with ∼15% of energy intake that isoenergetically replaces carbohydrate intake) lowers office and daytime BP compared with increased carbohydrate intake.

Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome

Objective
We investigated if daily egg feeding, along with carbohydrate restriction, would alter lipoprotein metabolism and influence atherogenic lipoprotein profiles and insulin resistance in men and women with metabolic syndrome (MetS).

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