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Nutrient composition

Peripheral skeleton bone strength is positively correlated with total and dairy protein intakes in healthy postmenopausal women

Abstract

Background

Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) are positively correlated with dietary protein intakes, which account for 1–8% of BMC and BMD variances. However, the relation between bone strength and microstructure, which are variables that are not captured by areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and dietary protein intakes, particularly from specific dietary sources, has not been clearly established.

Intake of up to 3 Eggs per Day Is Associated with Changes in HDL Function and Increased Plasma Antioxidants in Healthy, Young Adults

Abstract

Background: HDL function may be more important than HDL concentration in determining risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, HDL is a carrier of carotenoids and antioxidant enzymes, which protect HDL and LDL particles against oxidation.

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of consuming 0–3 eggs/d on LDL and HDL particle size, HDL function, and plasma antioxidants in a young, healthy population.

Vitamin D–enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults

Abstract

Background

Despite numerous animal studies that have illustrated the impact of additional vitamin D in the diet of hens on the resulting egg vitamin D content, the effect of the consumption of such eggs on vitamin D status of healthy individuals has not, to our knowledge, been tested.

Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in adolescents aged 14–18 y: a dose-response, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial

Abstract

Background

Adolescents are a population group at high risk of low vitamin D status, yet the evidence base for establishing dietary vitamin D requirements remains weak.

Objective

The aim was to establish the distribution of vitamin D intakes required to maintain serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations above proposed cutoffs (25, 30, 40, and 50 nmol/L) during winter in white males and females (14–18 y of age) in the United Kingdom (51°N).

High dietary choline and betaine intakes are associated with low insulin resistance in the Newfoundland population

Highlights:

●We first investigated the association of dietary choline and betaine intakes with insulin resistance.
●Dietary choline and betaine intakes were negatively correlated with insulin resistance.
●Associations were more pronounced in females than males.

Abstract
Objective

Dietary betaine supplement could ameliorate insulin resistance (IR) in animals, but no data are available for choline. Reports on humans are rare. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes and IR in humans.

Methods

Egg Consumption Increases Vitamin E Absorption from Co-Consumed Raw Mixed Vegetables in Healthy Young Men1,2,3

Abstract

Background: Most people living in the United States underconsume vitamin E, and dietary approaches to increase the absorption of vitamin E may help individuals to meet their body’s needs.

Objective: We assessed the effect of adding cooked whole egg to a raw mixed-vegetable salad on α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol absorption.

Vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause specific mortality

Abstract
Background & aims

Vitamin K has been associated with various health outcomes, including non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. However, little is known about the association between vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause specific mortality. This study aims to investigate the association between vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality.

Methods

Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada

Abstract

Background

Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.

Objective

To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.

Design

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