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Nutrient composition

Low vitamin D status is an independent predictor of increased frailty and all-cause mortality in older men: the Health in Men study

This prospective cohort study in 4203 older men aged 70-88 years in Perth, Western Australia showed an inverse association between plasma 25(OH)D levels and frailty, as well as all-cause mortality, over a period up to 9 years.

Context and objective
Hypovitaminosis D and frailty are common in the older population. We aimed to determine whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are associated with frailty and mortality.

Diet-induced weight loss: the effect of dietary protein on bone

High-protein (>30% of energy from protein or >1.2 g/kg/day) and moderately high-protein (22% to 29% of energy from protein or 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg/day) diets are popular for weight loss, but the effect of dietary protein on bone during weight loss is not well understood. Protein may help preserve bone mass during weight loss by stimulating insulin-like growth factor 1, a potent bone anabolism stimulator, and increasing intestinal calcium absorption. Protein-induced acidity is considered to have minimal effect on bone resorption in adults with normal kidney function.

Choline: needed for normal development of memory

Choline is a dietary component essential for normal function of all cells. It, or its metabolites, assures the structural integrity and signaling functions of cell membranes; it is the major source of methyl-groups in the diet (one of choline's metabolites, betaine, participates in the methylation of homocysteine to form methionine); and it directly affects nerve signaling, cell signaling and lipid transport/metabolism.

Nutritional effect of including egg yolk in the weaning diet of breast-fed and formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial

Background
Egg yolks can be a source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and iron but are often associated with adverse consequences on plasma cholesterol.

Objective
Our goal was to investigate the effect of consumption of 4 egg yolks/wk on infant DHA status and hemoglobin, ferritin, and plasma cholesterol concentrations. Secondary outcomes included plasma iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation.

Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations

Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the macular pigment of the retina, and are associated with a reduced incidence of macular degeneration.

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of consuming 1 egg/d for 5-wk on the serum concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in individuals greater than 60 y of age.

Choline in the diets of the US population: NHANES, 2003-3004

Objective 
To estimate choline intakes of US subpopulations including children, men, women and pregnant women.

Background
Choline is an essential nutrient which plays critical roles in brain development and homocysteine metabolism. Choline is widely distributed in foods; good sources include eggs, meats, cruciferous vegetables and legumes. The DRI for choline is expressed as Adequate Intake (AI).

Dietary intakes of choline in US infants, children and women

Background
Choline, an essential nutrient, is present in human milk and important for brain function. Adequate intakes (AIs) for choline were established by the IOM in 1998, but nationally representative estimates of intake are limited.

Objective
To assess intakes and sources of choline in diets of US non-breastfed infants, children 1-12 yrs and women 18-45 yrs, using NHANES 1999-2004 data.

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