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The term sarcopenia refers to the loss of muscle mass that occurs with ageing. On the basis of study results showing that muscle mass is only moderately related to functional outcomes, international working groups have proposed that loss of muscle strength or physical function should also be included in the definition. Irrespective of how sarcopenia is defined, both low muscle mass and poor muscle strength are clearly highly prevalent and important risk factors for disability and potentially mortality in individuals as they age.
This prospective cohort study in 4203 older men aged 70-88 years in Perth, Western Australia showed an inverse association between plasma 25(OH)D levels and frailty, as well as all-cause mortality, over a period up to 9 years.
Context and objective
Hypovitaminosis D and frailty are common in the older population. We aimed to determine whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are associated with frailty and mortality.
High-protein (>30% of energy from protein or >1.2 g/kg/day) and moderately high-protein (22% to 29% of energy from protein or 1.0 to 1.2 g/kg/day) diets are popular for weight loss, but the effect of dietary protein on bone during weight loss is not well understood. Protein may help preserve bone mass during weight loss by stimulating insulin-like growth factor 1, a potent bone anabolism stimulator, and increasing intestinal calcium absorption. Protein-induced acidity is considered to have minimal effect on bone resorption in adults with normal kidney function.
Choline is a dietary component essential for normal function of all cells. It, or its metabolites, assures the structural integrity and signaling functions of cell membranes; it is the major source of methyl-groups in the diet (one of choline's metabolites, betaine, participates in the methylation of homocysteine to form methionine); and it directly affects nerve signaling, cell signaling and lipid transport/metabolism.
Egg yolks can be a source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and iron but are often associated with adverse consequences on plasma cholesterol.
Our goal was to investigate the effect of consumption of 4 egg yolks/wk on infant DHA status and hemoglobin, ferritin, and plasma cholesterol concentrations. Secondary outcomes included plasma iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation.