Content beyond this point is designed
for health professionals only.

Are you a health professional?

Clicking 'no' will redirect you to the consumer nutrition section of our website.


You are here

Nutrient composition

Dietary intakes of choline in US infants, children and women

Choline, an essential nutrient, is present in human milk and important for brain function. Adequate intakes (AIs) for choline were established by the IOM in 1998, but nationally representative estimates of intake are limited.

To assess intakes and sources of choline in diets of US non-breastfed infants, children 1-12 yrs and women 18-45 yrs, using NHANES 1999-2004 data.

Choline in the diets of the US population: NHANES, 2003-3004

To estimate choline intakes of US subpopulations including children, men, women and pregnant women.

Choline is an essential nutrient which plays critical roles in brain development and homocysteine metabolism. Choline is widely distributed in foods; good sources include eggs, meats, cruciferous vegetables and legumes. The DRI for choline is expressed as Adequate Intake (AI).

Choline: needed for normal development of memory

Choline is a dietary component essential for normal function of all cells. It, or its metabolites, assures the structural integrity and signaling functions of cell membranes; it is the major source of methyl-groups in the diet (one of choline's metabolites, betaine, participates in the methylation of homocysteine to form methionine); and it directly affects nerve signaling, cell signaling and lipid transport/metabolism.

Nutritional effect of including egg yolk in the weaning diet of breast-fed and formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial

Egg yolks can be a source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and iron but are often associated with adverse consequences on plasma cholesterol.

Our goal was to investigate the effect of consumption of 4 egg yolks/wk on infant DHA status and hemoglobin, ferritin, and plasma cholesterol concentrations. Secondary outcomes included plasma iron, transferrin, and transferrin saturation.

Consumption of one egg per day increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in older adults without altering serum lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations

Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the macular pigment of the retina, and are associated with a reduced incidence of macular degeneration.

The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of consuming 1 egg/d for 5-wk on the serum concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in individuals greater than 60 y of age.