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Research reviews

High dietary choline and betaine intakes are associated with low insulin resistance in the Newfoundland population


●We first investigated the association of dietary choline and betaine intakes with insulin resistance.
●Dietary choline and betaine intakes were negatively correlated with insulin resistance.
●Associations were more pronounced in females than males.


Dietary betaine supplement could ameliorate insulin resistance (IR) in animals, but no data are available for choline. Reports on humans are rare. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes and IR in humans.


Egg Consumption Increases Vitamin E Absorption from Co-Consumed Raw Mixed Vegetables in Healthy Young Men1,2,3


Background: Most people living in the United States underconsume vitamin E, and dietary approaches to increase the absorption of vitamin E may help individuals to meet their body’s needs.

Objective: We assessed the effect of adding cooked whole egg to a raw mixed-vegetable salad on α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol absorption.

Vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause specific mortality

Background & aims

Vitamin K has been associated with various health outcomes, including non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. However, little is known about the association between vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause specific mortality. This study aims to investigate the association between vitamin K intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality.


Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada



Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.


To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.


Timing of Allergenic Food Introduction to the Infant Diet and Risk of Allergic or Autoimmune Disease A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis


Importance  Timing of introduction of allergenic foods to the infant diet may influence the risk of allergic or autoimmune disease, but the evidence for this has not been comprehensively synthesized.

Objective  To systematically review and meta-analyze evidence that timing of allergenic food introduction during infancy influences risk of allergic or autoimmune disease.

Data Sources  MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and LILACS databases were searched between January 1946 and March 2016.

PHE is advising that 10 micrograms of vitamin D are needed daily to help keep healthy bones, teeth and muscles

To protect bone and muscle health, everyone needs vitamin D equivalent to an average daily intake of 10 micrograms, Public Health England (PHE) advised the government today (Thursday 21 July 2016).

This advice is based on the recommendations of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) following its review of the evidence on vitamin D and health.

Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance

In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process.

Balancing and communicating risks and benefits associated with egg consumption – a relative risk study

The American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) recommend restricting egg consumption based on the hypothesis that egg intake will result in an increase in blood cholesterol levels, which, in turn, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks.

However, several studies have shown that dietary cholesterol from eggs has little, if any, effect on plasma cholesterol or the risk for heart diseases after adjustment for other potential risk factors.