Choline - a scoping review for Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2023
Obeid R. Dec 2023. Choline - a scoping review for Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2023. Food Nutr Res. doi: 10.29219/fnr.v67.10359
Choline is an essential nutrient with metabolic roles as a methyl donor in one carbon metabolism and as a precursor for membrane phospholipids and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline content is particularly high in liver, eggs, and wheat germ, although it is present in a variety of foods. The main dietary sources of choline in the Nordic and Baltic countries are meat, dairy, eggs, and grain. A diet that is devoid of choline causes liver and muscle dysfunction within 3 weeks. Choline requirements are higher during pregnancy and lactation than in non-pregnant women. Although no randomized controlled trials are available, observational studies in human, supported by coherence from interventional studies with neurodevelopmental outcomes and experimental studies in animals, strongly suggest that sufficient intake of choline during pregnancy is necessary for normal brain development and function in the child.
Observational studies suggested that adequate intake of choline could have positive effects on cognitive function in older people. However, prospective data are lacking, and no intervention studies are available in the elderly.