Egg Usual Intake is Associated with Choline Adequacy in US Infants and Young Children
Papanikolaou Y, 2023, Egg Usual Intake is Associated with Choline Adequacy in US Infants and Young Children, National Library of Medicine, doi: 10.1016/j.cdnut.2023.101958
Although most US children do not meet recommendations for choline intake, there are also no data available assessing usual egg intake in younger children and choline adequacy.
Therefore, data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2018 were analyzed to identify usual egg intake in infants (birth to 1 y; N = 4770) and young children (2-5 y; N = 6930) and to determine mean percentage of infants and children above the Adequate Intake (AI) for daily choline intake. The percent of infants above the AI when consuming the lowest usual egg intake level (<0.25 oz eq) was 33.4 ± 1.3.
When comparing 0.25-0.5, 0.5-0.75, 0.75-1.0, and ≥1.0 oz eq to <0.25 oz eq of usual egg intake, the percent of infants above the AI for choline was 67.4 ± 1.6, 84.9 ± 2.1, 93.2 ± 1.5, and 98.1 ± 1.3, respectively (all P < 0.0001). The percent of children above the AI when consuming the lowest usual egg intake level (<0.25 oz eq) was 22.31. Comparing 0.25- 0.5, 0.5-0.75, 0.75-1.0, and ≥1.0 oz eq to <0.25 oz eq of usual egg intake demonstrated significant increases in the percent of toddlers above the AI for choline, such that 51.41%, 72.57%, and 84.94% and 92.57%, respectively, were above the recommended daily intake for choline (all P < 0.0001).
Similar findings were seen when assessing infants and children of different socioeconomic status.
Overall, the percent of infants and children above the AI was higher with each increasing level of usual egg intake. Given the association of higher choline intakes with egg consumption, increasing usual egg intake in infants and young children may help elevate the percentage meeting the established AI for choline intake and thus, improve choline adequacy in childhood.