Evaluation of dietary food intakes and anthropometric measures in middle-aged men with aggressive symptoms
Background: Aggression is one of the most prevalent behavioral disorders in men.
Objective: This study aimed to assess the possible association between dietary intake of food groups and aggression in middle-aged married men.
Methods: This case-control study included 336 participants (168 men with aggressive behaviors and 168 healthy controls) aged 35-55 years. Demographic information was collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire. A food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate the diet group intake last year. Based on the normality of the data distribution, Independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare quantitative variables between the two groups. Categorical variables were compared between cases and controls using the Chi-squared test. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the possible association between food intake and aggression.
Results: Compared to controls, aggressive men had significantly higher mean weight, height, and waist circumference (WC), p = 0.007, p = 0.001, and p = 0.043, respectively. After adjusting WC, energy intake, and educational level, in Model 1, intake of milk, cheese, poultry, red meat, legumes, egg, fruits, and vegetables had a significant protective role on the occurrence of aggression, (Odd Ratio (OR) = 0.36; 95% (Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.204, 0.670; P = 0.001), (OR = 0.440; 95% CI = 0.284, 0.781; P = 0.005), (OR = 0.621; 95% CI = 0.284, 0.781; P = 0.046), (OR = 0.358; 95% CI = 0.198, 0.647; P = 0.001), (OR = 0.434; 95% CI = 0.243, 0.773; P = 0.005), (OR = 0.411; 95% CI = 0.229, 0.736; P = 0.003), (OR = 0.332; 95% CI = 0.180, 0.614; P < 0.001), (OR = 0.310; 95% CI = 0.168, 0.572; P < 0.001), respectively.
Conclusions: Lower WC and a diet containing high-quality protein, fruits, and vegetables can have a protective role against aggression and are recommended for men with an aggressive mood. This diet can affect plasma levels of tryptophan and, therefore, brain levels of serotonin.