Higher lacto-vegetarian dietary score is associated with reduced risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis: A case-control study in a sample of Iranian postmenopausal women
Ansari S. December 2023. Higher lacto-vegetarian dietary score is associated with reduced risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis: A case-control study in a sample of Iranian postmenopausal women. Nutrition Research. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2023.08.003
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease manifesting as weak and fragile bones. Dietary patterns have been described as an affecting constituent of bone metabolism. There is no consensus on the advantages or harms of vegetarian diets on bone health.
This study aimed to design a lacto-vegetarian dietary score (LVDS) to evaluate the similarity of an individual's dietary pattern to the lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern and assess its association with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). We hypothesized that individuals with greater LVDS will have a lower risk for PMO. In this hospital-based, case-control study, 220 cases (definitively diagnosed with osteoporosis) and 220 age-matched controls were registered. Usual dietary intakes were evaluated by a validated 147-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. To design the LVDS, the energy-adjusted intakes of 12 food groups were categorized into quintiles, and positive or reverse points were assigned.
To determine the association between the LVDS and PMO, binary logistic regression was used. Those in the top tertile of the LVDS had a lower chance of PMO compared with those in the bottom tertile (odds ratio, 0.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.22). An inverse relation was obtained between vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, dairy, soy protein, and egg consumption and PMO.
Higher consumption of vegetable and animal oils significantly increased the risk of PMO. A dietary pattern similar to the lacto-vegetarian dietary pattern and concentrated on greater consumption of legumes, nuts, dairy, fruits, vegetables, and soy protein can be suggested as a protective method against PMO. Further, longitudinal studies are required to confirm these findings.