Unscrambling the relations of egg and meat consumption with type 2 diabetes risk.
Meat intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is not clear if egg intake is associated with T2D risk because purported associations may be due to concurrent consumption of eggs with meat.
Our aim was to differentiate any associations between meat and egg consumption and the risk of T2D.
In this longitudinal study, 55,851 participants of the Adventist Health Study 2 who were free of diabetes provided demographic, anthropometric, and dietary data at baseline. Meat and egg intakes were assessed with a validated quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Responses to 2 follow-up questionnaires determined incident T2D cases. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression was used to determine relations between meat and egg intake and incident T2D.
T2D cases identified during a mean 5.3 y of follow-up totaled 2772. Meat intake of >0 to <25 g/d, ≥25 to <70 g/d, and ≥70 g/d significantly increased the risk of T2D compared with no meat intake (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.44; OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.61; and OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.96, respectively; P-trend < 0.0001). Egg intake compared with no egg intake was not associated with T2D risk. A significant meat-egg interaction (P = 0.019) showed that within every category of egg intake, there was an incremental rise in T2D risk as meat intake increased. However, within categories of meat intake, increasing egg intake did not increase the risk of T2D except among nonmeat-eaters consuming ≥5 eggs/wk (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.12).
Meat consumption, but not egg consumption, is independently associated with T2D risk. Egg intake seems not to increase T2D risk further with meat intake. Our findings suggest that the purported egg-T2D risk relation in US populations may be biased due to failure to investigate egg-meat interactions. Further investigations are needed to ascertain T2D risk among nonmeat-eaters with high egg intakes.
Sabaté J, Burkholder-Cooley NM, Segovia-Siapco G, Oda K, Wells B, Orlich MJ, Fraser GE, 1 November 2018, Unscrambling the relations of egg and meat consumption with type 2 diabetes risk, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1;108(5):1121-1128.