Children Aged 5-6 Years in Vancouver, Canada Meet Dietary Recommendations for Folate and Vitamin B12 but not Choline
Wiedeman A et al, January 2023, Children Aged 5-6 Years in Vancouver, Canada Meet Dietary Recommendations for Folate and Vitamin B12 but not Choline, The Journal of Nutrition, DOI: 10.1016/j.tjnut.2022.11.012
Background: Choline, folate, and vitamin B12 are required for growth and development, but there is limited information on the intakes and relationships to biomarkers of status in children.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the choline and B-vitamin intakes and relationship to biomarkers of status in children.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in children (n = 285, aged 5-6 y) recruited from Metro Vancouver, Canada. Dietary information was collected by using 3 24-h recalls. Nutrient intakes were estimated by using the Canadian Nutrient File and United States Department of Agriculture database for choline. Supplement information was collected by using questionnaires. Plasma biomarkers were quantified by using mass spectrometry and commercial immunoassays, and relationships to dietary and supplement intake were determined by using linear models.
Results: Daily dietary intakes of choline, folate, and vitamin B12 were [mean (SD)] 249 (94.3) mg, 330 (120) DFE μg, and 3.60 (1.54) μg, respectively. Top food sources of choline and vitamin B12 were dairy, meats, and eggs (63%-84%) and for folate, were grains, fruits, and vegetables (67%). More than half of the children (60%) were consuming a supplement containing B-vitamins, but not choline. Only 40% of children met the choline adequate intake (AI) recommendation for North America (≥250 mg/d); 82% met the European AI (≥170 mg/d). Less than 3% of children had inadequate folate and vitamin B12 total intakes. Some children (5%) had total folic acid intakes above the North American tolerable upper intake level (UL; >400 μg/d); 10% had intakes above the European UL (>300 μg/d). Dietary choline intake was positively associated with plasma dimethylglycine, and total vitamin B12 intake was positively associated with plasma B12 (adjusted models; P < 0.001).Conclusions: These findings suggest that many children are not meeting the dietary choline recommendations, and some children may have excessive folic acid intakes. The impact of imbalanced one-carbon nutrient intakes during this active period of growth and development requires further investigation.
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