Choline in the diets of the US population: NHANES, 2003-3004

To estimate choline intakes of US subpopulations including children, men, women and pregnant women.

Choline is an essential nutrient which plays critical roles in brain development and homocysteine metabolism. Choline is widely distributed in foods; good sources include eggs, meats, cruciferous vegetables and legumes. The DRI for choline is expressed as Adequate Intake (AI).

The USDA data base for choline values and USDA Standard Reference, Release 19 were used to complete choline values in foods listed in USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 2.0. Choline intakes were estimated for all sources in NHANES survey data for 2003-2004. Distributions of usual intakes of total choline for population groups were estimated using PC SIDE 1.02 (Iowa State University) for the 2-day sample (n= 7581).

Mean choline usual intakes exceed the AI for young children. For older children, men, women and pregnant women, mean usual intakes are far below the AI; 10% or less had usual intakes above the AI.

Increased consumption of foods that are good sources of choline is needed to improve diets of groups with inadequate choline intakes.


Choline in the diets of the US population: NHANES, 2003-3004. Jensen HH, Batres-Marquez SP, Carriquiry A et al. (2007) FASEB Journal 21:lb219


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