Eggs - a scoping review for Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2023

Virtanen J. Eggs - a scoping review for Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2023. Food Nutr Res. doi: 10.29219/fnr.v68.10507

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cancer are a significant public health burden in the Nordic and Baltic countries. High intake of eggs, mainly due to its high cholesterol content, has been suggested to have adverse health effects. The purpose of this scoping review is to describe the evidence related to the impact of egg intake on health. A literature search identified 38 systematic reviews and meta-analyses on egg consumption in relation to health outcomes published between 2011 and 30 April 2022. Overall, current evidence from systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials indicates that higher egg intake may increase serum total cholesterol concentration and the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but with substantial heterogeneity in the response. However, recent evidence from observational studies does not provide strong support for a detrimental role of moderate egg consumption (up to one egg/day) on the risk of CVD, especially in the European studies. The overall evidence from observational studies indicates that egg consumption is not associated with increased risk of mortality or T2D in European study populations. There is also little support for a role of egg consumption in cancer development, although a weak association with higher risk of certain cancers has been found in some studies, mainly case-control studies. Again, no associations with cancer risk have been observed in European studies. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of egg consumption in relation to other health-related outcomes are scarce. There are also limited data available on the associations between the consumption of more than one egg/day and risk of diseases. Based on the available evidence, one egg/day is unlikely to adversely affect overall disease risk.

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